XR Glossary

360-Degree Video
Immersive videos or spherical videos where there is a view in every direction recorded at the same time using an omnidirectional camera.
3D Animation
Creating a sequence of poses with a 3D object that creates the illusion of life-like movement
3D Model (Asset)
A 3D model is a digital representation of an object that has length, width, and depth.
5G
The 5th generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks offering greater bandwidth and higher download speeds.
Analytics
Information metrics resulting from the analysis of events occuring in artificial reality
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Intelligence demonstrated by computers to adapt to human cognitive functions like problem solving and learning
Augmented Reality (AR)
Placing a digital image or a hologram in the user’s view of the real world through a digital devices, for example a smartphone device, tablet, or mixed reality headset like the Microsoft HoloLens.
Avatar
An avatar represents the user in a virtual environment.
CAD
Computer-Aided Design: the use of specialized digital tools to aid in the creation, modification or analysis of a design.
Code and Programming Languages
Code is a set of instructions written in a number of programming languages like Python, JavaScript, Java, and C# that are deplyed by a computer. The result of writing these instructions is a computer program, which can curate an immersive experience.
Code Snippet
Code snippets are a representation of a pre-programmed set of code. Ability to re-use Code snippets speeds up the development process.
Data
Reference to the analysis of digital facts
Degrees of Freedom (DoF)
How a user moves through virtual space in a headset. 3DoF allows moving the head to view in any direction. 6DoF allows up, down, left, right, forward, and backward movement, so the user can physically walk around and interact.
Digital Twin
A replica of a digital entity
Doppler Effect
An increase in the frequency of sound or light as its source approaches an observer or a decrease if it moves away.
Edge Computing
A distributed computing paradigm bringing computation and data storage closer to the location needed in order to decrease latency.
Embodiment
Realization of being immersed in the virtual space through representation
Extended Reality (XR)
All real and virtual environments and interactions generated by technology and wearables
Eye Tracking
Eye tracking is similar to head tracking, but the headset measures where the user’s eyes are directly looking.
Field of View (FOV)
Refers to the angle, measured in degrees, within a user’s visual field in a headset.
Foveated Rendering
Eye tracking integrated with a virtual reality headset to reduce the rendering workload by reducing the image quality in the peripheral vision (outside of the zone gazed by the fovea)
Game-based learning
Learning through games with re-packaged academic content to promote critical or strategic thinking and used to support students otherwise not engaged.
Gamification
A digitization to non-game applications to encourage a specific response. Using point scoring, paths of engagement and rules of play with a reward system to enhance personal achievement.
Gaze
Direct point of eyesight measured using VR or MR headsets
Geolocation
Identification of the geographic location of a user or device
Gesture
A non-verbal form of communication usually used with movement of hands, face or other parts of the body
Guardian System
Real-world boundaries to safely move inside an immersed virtual environment.
Hand Tracking:
Hand tracking allows the user to interact with 3D objects directly in an immersed world. Tracking of movements may be done directly from the HMD, haptic gloves or wearables
Haptics and force feedback:
Force feedback simulates real-world touch and force, enhancing the realism of interactions. This is most commonly achieved through wearable gloves or controllers.
Head Mounted Display (HMD)
A hardware unit — i.e., a VR headset — that provides the vehicle to visualize and immerse in virtual software content
Head Tracking
Tracks the position of the user’s head in an HMD in order to orient the virtual environment to the user’s point of view.
Heat Maps
A data visualization tool that shows areas that are most interesting from the users point of view
Hotspot
An interactive location to release more content or options in an immersive space
Immersion
Immersion is a psychological state of being in a virtual environment
Internet of Things (IoT)
A system of related computing devices, software, objects, animals or people with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data through a network without requiring human to human or human to computer interaction.
Interpupillary Distance
The distance between the pupils of both eyes.
Latency
The delay between a user’s action and the technology’s reaction. Low latency is critical to a comfortable VR/AR experience.
Low-Code / No-Code Development
Allows you to develop interactive experiences with a visual, often drag-and-drop-based, approach. Code Snippets support this movement making it easier and faster to develop experiences
Mesh
A collection of polygons in 3D space forming a shape.
Metaverse
Refers to the world you are in, when you are in virtual and augmented reality
Mixed Reality (MR)
Where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time.
Navigation
Directing yourself in a virtual environment
Non-Player Character (NPC)
A character players do not have control over and their actions are often based on predetermined, algorithmic, or responsive behavior.
Occlusion
Hiding an object from view by the positioning of other object's in the User's light of sight. ie. Shadows caused by a light
Performant
The ability of an immersive experience to run at a high enough frame rate to not cause judder. There are many techniques used to optimize content to make it performant including reduction of the polygons in a 3D asset.
Photogrammetry
A process of taking several photographs of a person, object or place and stitching them together to create a digital twin
Pixel
In a digital image, it is the smallest physical point & element of a picture represented in a screen
Polygons
A plane figure defined by a number of straight lines to forma closed polyginal circuit. The 3D objects they form are rendered into a wireframe.
Portal
A location in a virtual space where the user can pass through into a new threeworld-dimensional world
Positional Tracking
Allows the user to physically walk around in a virtual space limited by room size and sometimes cable length (if the headset is connected to a computer). Not all headsets allow positional tracking.
Presence
When users naturally perceive the virtual system and fully believe that they are part of and in a non-physical environment.
QR (Quick Response) Codes
A matrix barcode that contains digital information about an item, object, person, place or location. Activated by a smartphone camera, the code pulls up the linked information.
Refresh Rate
The speed, measured in frames per second (FPS) or hertz (Hz), at which images are displayed in a virtual environment. The accepted minimum refresh rate for a comfortable VR experience is 90 FPS.
Rendering
Through a computer algorithm, the generation of 2D and 3D images are processed to increase efficiency and performance at the highest standard possible.
Shading
Shading is the illusion of depth perception, which is achieved through the variation of color and texture of an object.
SLAM
Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) enables 6DoF by positioning the user relative to your environment. Where 3DoF allows you to only Pitch, Yaw and Roll your head, SLAM adds Up/Down Left/Right and Back/Forth.
Spatial Audio
3D Audio effects are built into the surround-sound environment of the experience
Spatial Computing
Human interaction with a computer in which the machine retains and manipulates responses to real objects and spaces.
Teleportation
The user is able to use their controller to transfer from one point to another without traveling the physical space between locations.
Virtual Reality (VR)
A simulation of a 3D environment viewed through a Head Mounted Display or HMD. With controllers, the user is able to interact with the virtual content.
Volumetric Video Capture
A video technique capturing 3 dimensional space that may be viewed on 2D screens or in an HMD
Voxel
A cubic volume pixel for quantizing three-dimensional space.
WebXR
Interacting with immersive content doirectly through the web browser without an app.
Wireframe
A blueprint of the immersive experience that includes rendered 3D objects to visualize how the prototype will work.